Authors: Beáta Kopacz-Dósa1, Romana Vulturar2,3, Paulina Vele4, Laura Damian5
1 Rheumatology Department, Emergency Clinical County Hospital Târgu Mureș, Romania
2 Department of Molecular Sciences, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3 Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4 Galenus Medical Centre, Rheumatology Service, Turda, Romania
5 Rheumatology Department, Emergency Clinical County Hospital Cluj, Centre for Rare Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Diseases (ERN-ReCONNET), Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Myositis ossificans (MO, heterotopic ossification) consists of lamellar bone formation in soft tissues, without ossification properties under physiological circumstances. MO can be primary (isolated or associated with various congenital disorders) or secondary in the site of a pre-existing lesion, such as inflammation, a neoplasm or a benign tumor. Primary forms are rare, present systemic symptoms and usually have a worse prognosis. MO is relatively frequent after sports lesions, hip arthroplasty or central nervous system injuries. Posttraumatic MO complicates about 20% of large hematomas after muscle contusions and strains. Diagnosis can be made through imaging or histopathological methods. Although characteristic features can be distinguished on simple radiographic images, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and ultrasonography provide diagnosis in the earlier stages. Despite MO not having a universal prophylaxis or treatment, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs proved to be efficient in certain forms, while surgical excision and extracorporeal shock wave therapy might be useful therapeutic options.
Key words: heterotopic ossification, physical activity, posttraumatic myositis, bone formation